By | August 25, 2017

In anatomy, the throat is part of the neck consisting of the pharynx and larynx. The throat has a muscle membrane called epiglottis that serves to separate the esophagus from the trachea and prevent food and drink from entering the respiratory tract. The throat consists of two parts:
1. Road eating (keronggongan): Orofaring, hipofaring and esophagus
2. Airway (throat): Faring, larynx and trachea.

organ tubuh manusia


The heart (Latin, cast) is a cavity, a cavity, a muscular organ that pumps blood through blood vessels by repeated rhythmic contractions. The term cardiac means to be related to the heart, from the Greek cardia to the heart. The heart is one of the organs that play a role in the circulatory system.

Weak heart muscle. This is a congenital abnormality. Weak heart muscles make the patient unable to excessive activity, because the excessive performance of the heart will cause pain in the chest, and sometimes can cause the body to appear bluish. Patients with weak heart muscle is easily fainted.

The existence of a gap between the right and left porch, because the imperfect formation of a layer that separates between the two porches when the patient is still in the womb. This causes clean blood and dirty blood mixed. This disease also makes the patient unable to perform heavy activities, because heavy activity will almost certainly make the patient’s body becomes blue and shortness of breath, although not causing pain in the chest. There is also a variation of this disease, namely the sufferer really only has one porch.

Heart Surface


Internal Heart Structure
Internally, the heart is separated by a muscle layer into two halves, from top to bottom, into two pumps. Both of these pumps since birth were never connected. The hemisphere consists of two cavities separated by the heart wall. Then it can be concluded that the heart consists of four cavities, the right & left foyer and the right & left chambers.

Porch walls are much thinner than cubicle walls because the chamber has to resist the gravitational force of the earth to pump from the bottom up, especially in the aorta, to pump to all parts of the body that have blood vessels. Two pairs of cavities (chamber and concrete porch) in each hemisphere are connected by a valve. The valve between the right portico and the right chamber is called the tricuspid valve or the triple leaf valve. While the valve that is in between the left portico and the left cubicle is called the mitralis valve or two-leaf valve.


How Heart Works
At the time of pulsation, every chamber of the heart relaxes and filled with blood (called diastole). Furthermore, the heart contracts and pumps blood out of the heart chamber (called systole). Both porches relax and contract simultaneously, and the two chambers also relax and contract simultaneously.

Blood that runs out of oxygen and contains a lot of carbon dioxide (dirty blood) from the entire body flows through two large veins (vena cava) into the right aisle. After the right atrium is filled with blood, he will push the blood into the right chamber.

The blood from the right chamber will be pumped through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery, leading to the lungs. Blood will flow through the very small vessels (capillaries) that surround the air bag in the lungs, absorb oxygen and release the carbon dioxide which is then exhaled.

Blood rich in oxygen (clean blood) flows in the pulmonary vein leading to the left ventricle. The circulation of blood between the right part of the heart, lungs and the left atrium is called the pulmonary circulation.

The blood in the left ventricle will be pushed toward the left ventricle, which will then pump this clean blood through the aortic valve into the aorta (the largest artery in the body). This oxygen-rich blood is reserved for the whole body, except the lungs.


Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease

Entering the age of 45 years for men.
For women, entering the age of 55 years or having early menopause (as a result of surgery).
History of heart disease in the family.
High blood pressure (hypertension).
Overweight (obesity).
Bad lifestyle.
Heart attack

Heart attack is a condition when damage is experienced by the heart muscle part (myocardium) due to the very sudden reduction of blood supply to the heart muscle. A sudden reduction in the blood supply to the heart may occur when one of the coronary arteries is blocked for some time, either from spasm – to tighten the coronary pulse – or to the blood clot – thrombus. The part of the heart muscle normally supplied by the blocked pulse ceases to function properly as soon as the splasm subsides on its own, the symptoms disappear completely and the heart muscle functions absolutely

Mall again. This is often called crescendo angina or coronary insufficiency. Conversely, when the blood supply to the heart stops completely, the cells in question undergo permanent changes in just a few hours and the part of the heart muscle is permanently degraded or damaged. The dead muscles are called infarcts. Heart Attack Symptoms There are several, among others: 1.Nyeri. If the muscle does not get enough blood (a condition called ischemia), inadequate oxygen and excessive metabolic results cause cramps or seizures. Angina is a feeling of tightness in the chest or feeling squeezed chest, which arises if the heart muscle does not get enough blood. The type and severity of pain or discomfort vary from person to person. Some people who have lack of blood flow may not feel any pain at all (a condition called silent ischemia) .2. Breathlessness is a common symptom of heart failure. Shortness is the result of ingress of fluid into the air cavities in the lungs (pulmonary congestion or pulmonary edema) .3.Operation or fatigue. If the heart is not effectively pumping, then the blood flow to the muscles during the activity will be reduced, causing the patient to feel weak and tired. These symptoms are often mild. To overcome this, patients usually reduce their activity gradually or think of this symptom as part of aging.4.Palpitasi (heart palpitations) 5.Pusing & fainting. Decreased blood flow due to heart rate or abnormal heart rhythm or due to poor pumping ability, can cause dizziness and fainting The heart function serves to pump oxygen-rich blood (O2) throughout the body through the arterial blood vessels and receive less O2 (dirty) blood from all over The body through the veins (venous) to be pumped back into the lungs and get the O2 back, then flowed into the heart of the left side of the heart, to reassemble the whole body, then so on. This function can not be commanded by us, so it works automatically. The normal heart beats at 60-100 / min, and every pulse is about 70-80 cc of blood, so average every minute is about 5 ltr of pumped blood, 300 ltr / hr, 7000 ltr / day, and it never breaks. If we are only 50 yrs old, how much has been pumped by our heart that is only 1 fist our hands. Kidney The kidney is an organ of excretion in vertebrates that are shaped like beans. As part of the urinary system, the kidneys function to filter out dirt (especially urea) from the blood and dispose of it along with water in the form of urine. The branch of medicine that studies the kidneys and the disease is called nephrology. Kidney function Filter and cleanse the blood from the body’s waste metabolism substances2. Extracting excessive amounts3. Reabsorption (absorption) of certain electrolytes performed by the renal tubule section4. Keeping the acid-base balance in the human body5. Produce hormone substances that play the role of forming and ripening red blood cells (HR) in the bone marrow. Abnormalities in the kidneys Kidney abnormalities include renal and kidney stones: Causes of renal failure include: 1. Eat fatty foods. High blood cholesterol3. Less exercise4. Smoking, and 5. Drinking alcoholic beverages. Overcoming kidney failure Scientific advances, allowing kidney function to be replaced. Replacement function is known as Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) or Kidney Replacement Therapy (TPG). There are two ways TPG, namely transplant / kidney transplant and dialysis / dialysis. Dialysis / dialysis is divided into: 1. HD (Hemodialysis), dialysis with the help of machine2. PD (Peritoneal Dialysis), dialysis through the stomach cavity D. ATIHati is the second largest organ in the body (after the skin) and weighs about 1.25 kg or about 3 pounds. The size of the liver is quite large, about the size of a ball for rugby (American football ). The heart is located under the ribs, in the upper right part of the abdomen. You can not live without the heart. Heart is one of the most important organs, has more than 500 functions. Some of these include fighting infections, processing foods that have been absorbed from the intestines, producing bile sap, essential functioning compounds in the digestive system of foods, storing iron, vitamins and other important chemicals, controlling the level / fat, glucose / sugar And amino acids in the blood and detoxify or remove toxic substances in the body. Another way to see what the liver does is to think about how the liver can help you by producing energy quickly if needed, preventing the body’s fuel shortage by storing vitamins- Certain vitamins, minerals and sugars, control the production and excretion of cholesterol, metabolism